Activities have been carefully planned to account for the fact that honey bees are seasonally available pollinators.
In the winter the student will begin by learning to handle data and implement R-INLA disease models in R and how to obtain relevant outputs.
In the summer, the student will become familiar with handling live bees and handling all the different apparatus. We expect some pilot study data in this first year but mainly this will be a period of training.
In the winter, the student will obtain climatic predictions for the UK, regionalise these, and assess future regional impact of six different honey bee diseases during the winter using the outputs from the R-INLA disease models.
In the summer the students will run experiments to assess the susceptibility of honey bees given different exposures to extreme weather events using the rain machine and native DWV. Honey bees vary in their physiology depending on the time of year. Experiments will include assessing the pupal and adult stages at three different times of the year Spring (April), summer (June) and winter (September) bees.
In the winter the student will use real-time qPCR to test bees exposed to wild-type DWV for the development of virus infection. This will include a full screen of other honey bee pathogens to determine whether increases in susceptibility are limited to viruses or also include pathogens such as microsporidia and bacteria.
In the summer the student will complete their final experiments using EGFP modified DWV to highlight the routes of infection in compromised honey bees.
This will be a period of writing for the student.